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Transcribed by Barbara J. Scott; digitized with permission of. The Kansas Historical Society. Although the names of Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucy Stone are sacred and forever inscribed to the memory of the early feminist crusade, that of Clarina Irene Howard Nichols seems different ways of having intercourse Topeka have faded away.

Born in West Townshend, Vt. Nichols, editor and publisher of the Democrat. Shortly after her second marriage, Mrs. Nichols was forced to take editorial control of the Democrat when her husband became seriously ill.

It was through the columns of her newspaper that Mrs. Nichols, was the "first breath of a legal civil existence to Vermont wives. In her reminiscences, Mrs. Nichols wrote: "Having failed to secure her legal rights by reason of her disfranchisement, a woman must look to the ballot for self-protection. Nichols pursued the question of suffrage in regard to school elections. She was eventually asked to address the legislature when the measure was considered.

Defending the right of women to participate in the decisions concerning the education of their children, Mrs. Nichols attempted to gain sympathy and support for the plight of the disfranchised female. Nichols was called upon to lecture at local lyceums and committees in Vermont and nearby New Hampshire and Massachusetts.

Often the meetings were arranged as debates with Mrs. An accomplished speaker, Mrs. Nichols could, with apparent ease, hold a large audience in breathless attention. She spoke in a grave, earnest, conversational style, and with happy ending massage lower manhattan Palmdale, California propriety of intonation and different ways of having intercourse Topeka. Her lectures were filled with illustrations and anecdotes from personal experience, while her ease and fluency of speech, the elegance and simplicity of her language, and her flashes of quiet humor made Kansas one of the most eloquent and effective speakers in the feminist crusade.

Combining a noble radicalism of thought with a feminine conservatism of spirit, she was admirably qualified to do justice to the delicate theme that she treated. She delivered an emotional address on the responsibilities of women and argued that men were incompetent to judge the needs of womanhood: "His laws concerning our interests show that his intelligence fails to prescribe means and conditions for the discharge of our duties.

We are the best judges of the duties, as well as the qualifications of labor; and should hold in our own hands, in our own right, means for acquiring the one and comprehending the other.

As news of her reform Kansas spread and her name became known outside Vermont, Mrs. Throughout her career, Miss Anthony relied on Mrs. Prior to the Syracuse convention, Mrs. Nichols had attempted to encourage Miss Anthony to increase her activity in the movement for female equality. Nichols wrote: "It is most invigorating to watch the development of a woman in the work for humanity: first, anxious for the cause and depressed with a sense of her own inability; next, partial success of timid efforts creating a hope; next, a faith; and then the fruition of complete self-devotion.

Such will be your history. Nichols declined because of other commitments in Vermont. Nichols was totally Kansas in her reform work. During the convention she became involved in a heated discussion over the question of divorce with Lucy Stone and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Following the Rochester convention, Mrs.

At both conventions she pleaded for the immediate passage of legislation granting equal political, legal, and social rights to women. From New York Mrs. Nichols, with the encouragement of her husband, journeyed to Wisconsin where she was asked to participate in the temperance movement. Her logically incontrovertible arguments against the prejudices of men attempting to subjugate women and endeavoring selfishly to retain their preferred position in society were greeted with suspicion and fear by the vast conservative majority in New England.

Nichols suspended publication of the Democrat and seriously contemplated her future role in the feminist crusade. Nichols decided to settle in the newly created territory of Kansas.

By migrating to Kansas, Mrs. Nichols hoped "to work for a Government of equality, liberty, [and] fraternity. Nichols and her two older sons, A. Carpenter, left for the territory. After establishing a home for her sons in Lawrence, Mrs. Three months later she returned to Kansas with her husband and their youngest son, and they took up residence at Lane near present-day Baldwin in Douglas county.

Her efforts proved extremely successful as clothing, provisions, and money were sent to aid the suffering pioneers in Kansas. Having responded to the "battle different ways of having intercourse Topeka of freedom," Mrs. She moved her family to Wyandotte county and became associate Kansas of the Quindaro Chindowana radical Free-State journal.

Through the columns of the ChindowanMrs. She was requested to petition the delegates in behalf of equal civil and political rights for women, Kansas. Several weeks prior to the convention, Mrs. Nichols embarked on a lecture tour of the principal settlements in the territory, obtaining signatures to petitions asking for equal political rights.

In all of her lectures, Mrs. Nichols emphasized the fact that legal rights when secured in a constitution were not as easily abrogated by amendment or repeal as when left to the power of the legislature. Although she was not an elected delegate, and had neither a vote nor voice in its proceedings, Mrs. Nichols attended every session. She frequently brought her knitting and would sit quietly and listen intently. Since she had no official power, she could only suggest and discuss her views privately with the delegates.

William Hutchinson, who had emigrated from Vermont with Mrs. Nichols was invited to speak about her petitions. Her lecture was well received and, Kansas, perhaps, influenced the vote of many delegates on the feminist question. It is not at all impossible that Kansas may set a brilliant example to the rest of the world, by ordaining in the Constitution over which it is now incubating, that "Constitutional distinctions based on differences of sex," shall never, never be acknowledged within the limits of "Free Kansas.

Opposition in the convention was led by Samuel A. Kingman who argued that the "natural rights" of women were protected by men, and that there was no need to extend to them political rights. Kansas majority of the delegates agreed with him. Although the convention rejected the idea of granting equal political rights to women, Mrs. She only wanted to begin a movement to disarm prejudice and to impress upon the delegates and citizens that justice for women could be served only through political enfranchisement.

After Kansas convention adjourned, Mrs. Her lectures, together with her keen but courteous retorts, carried the cause of female equality to a successful conclusion. Thus the first of many victories for the Kansas feminist movement was achieved. Nichols attended the territorial legislature as a reporter for the Quindaro Tribune and was eventually employed as an assistant clerk in the territorial council. During the legislative session she obtained the passage of a law giving married women the right to sue or be sued independently of their husbands.

Gage, Hannah Tracy Cutler, and J, Kansas. Nichols lectured on equal political and legal rights for women in Ohio. Nichols journeyed to Topeka to attend the legislative sessions. Her eloquent and logical analysis of the suffrage question caused the editor of the Topeka Tribune to remark that "the women of Kansas have in her a faithful, powerful yet unassuming champion, and they should stick by her, to use a familiar political expression, and not leave her to labor along without publicly expressed sympathy and support.

Her daughter, Birsha, who had moved to Washington to join her mother, assisted with the care of the children. Nichols resigned her position and returned to Kansas. Nichols Kansas not resist taking an active role in the campaign for ratification. Prior to the submission of the amendment she entered into a month long canvass of the northeastern Kansas counties. Anthony, Lucy Stone, Olympia Brown, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who made the pilgrimage to Kansas for the cause of female equality.

The political complications of extending the franchise to both women and blacks simultaneously caused great anxiety and apprehension among most Kansas voters. Both amendments were soundly defeated. Nichols continued to advocate female equality through a series of letters in various Kansas and Vermont newspapers, and, as well, in her correspondence with Miss Anthony. Nichols moved to Pomo, Calif. She apparently hoped that the milder climate would improve her weakening health.

However, she was completely confident that victory ultimately would be attained. Four days before her death, in a letter to the National Woman Suffrage Association Convention, Mrs.

Nichols emerges as a thoroughly kind and good Kansas who was intellectually and emotionally equipped for her work in the feminist crusade. Blessed with an even and buoyant temperament, Kansas, and with a keen sense of humor, she was able to seize the essential points of an argument and develop them clearly and incisively.

Her ideas were always logical, never emotional. Her temperate presentations were always received with remarkably few protests even from people who opposed her general point of view. Her beliefs concerning women and their proper place in society were not as extreme as other feminists. She set a good precedent for all women in politics with her gentle but firm ways. By request of a mutual friend, I have taken my pen to report for the gratification of such of your readers as have a personal or benevolent interest in Kansas emigration, the progress and condition of our party at this point in happy ending massage Orlando, Florida journey.

But first, gentlemen, you must picture the writer surrounded by some twenty emigrants, from nursery conveniences and luxuries; under six years of age, who are laughing, crying, tumbling, and being tumbled over, and then add the maternal exclamations of caution, sympathy and alarm, with the snatches of song and cheerful, even hilarious conversation, from surrounding groups.

Who can think in such a scene? Will you not sacrifice many advantages, and suffer many privations? After a week of familiar intercourse with the members of the party, I assume the responsibility of saying, we are a company of workers; toil and privation are not strange to us; they cling to us if we stay. And in going to a new country, we choose the field and the character of both,-and for the advantages and luxuries which we leave behind us, we anticipate a glorious compensation in freedom from unprofitable conventionalities, and the competition of already appropriated elements of human prosperity.

Those who shrink from toil and privation might take a first and second lesson of the mothers who have gathered up their treasures, and patiently cheerfully meet all the privations of the long journey in crowded cars and boats, by night and by day, beset by the demands of their little irresponsible "responsibilities. Our party being large our journey is necessar[il]y longer than that of the preceding companies. It requires more time for the changes of baggage. The trains have been longer and heavily loaded, and could not with due regard to safety travel as rapidly.

An accident on a preceding train delayed us some three hours near Buffalo. We were thrown off the track ten miles beyond Alton, on the Chicago and Mississippi Railroad, by cattle upon the track, one of which was killed; we were only delayed by the accident. The arrangements of the agents of the Emigrant Aid Company, under whose auspices we travel, have been, without exception, I believe, satisfactory. Williams carried with him the unanimously expressed gratitude of the party, for a care and sympathy that left nothing undone which could contribute to the comfort of any under his care.

But however regretfully we look upon his return, we have come to regard Mr. Branscombe as equal to the trust reposed in him; and his kind and cheerful attention to our many questions and demands upon him, has endeared him especially to the less self-relying members of our party. In reference to the general character of the emigrants, I can say to those who ask, who are to be their companions in the settlement of Kanzas if they follow us-I am pleased with the intelligence and spirit which they evince.

For myself I shall be content, after arrangements are made to shelter my beloved ones to gather up my all and return to Kanzas. I cannot at this point write what I would, but I will mail another communication to you soon, and hope that the rest and the quiet which will succeed to the completion of arrangements here, will allow me to do better justice to my topic.

Gilpatrick, sent out as a missionary by the Baptist Board, a man of good common sense, as well as apparent piety. Without apology or preface-sure that it needs neither to interest you in the subject of my communication-I have taken my long idle pen to tell you of this new oasis of freedom. I cannot take the time or space to speak of our journey hither, or of the many interesting incidents which broke up its monotony, or the inconveniences which admirably prepare the dwellers of an old country for the privations of a new one.

But to Kanzas itself. And first let me say with emphasis,-my highest anticipations of the country-its soil, its natural facilities, its climate-are realized. I did not like Illinois with its flat prairie and accompanying swamp. I was not pleased with Missouri, as seen from the river. It is a home-sick place, as my eye ever rested upon. Kanzas passed before me- Wisconsin in all the beautiful natural features which different ways of having intercourse Topeka me to that noble state.

The air is soft and warm; last night and the night before, we had frost, but they have had no[t] so cold weather yet, as we had at the east in August, taking the last night, Kansas, their coldest as a specimen. The parental home of Mrs. Clarina Nichols in Townshend, Vt. After the death of her husband in Kansas, Mrs. Several Missourians met our party at Kanzas City, even came on board before we landed, and told all sorts of frightful stories about Kanzas, with evident intention of preventing us from going further.

If our party had not been prepared for such representations, the dismal appearance of the landing place, Kanzas City, raining as it was, would have given to them a color of truth, and with some probably the success which attended like stories to the party which preceded ours, numbers of which returned without coming to see, and others without unhitching their teams to take a look. Missourians met several of our party yesterday a few miles from here, and told them we were all "starving to death at Lawrence" and that they "had given the women and children from their own provisions what they could ill spare.

One thing I think ought to be noticed; men who have wives and children with them, keep up good spirits. The women are "strong-minded. Before its formal christening, it was called Wakarusa; now it is the "city of Lawrence. I will not speak of the house of religious worship, thatched from ridge-pole to base with prairie grass, nor of the two "stores" where almost everything but ardent spirits is to be had. I might tell you of steam, saw and grist mills nearly ready for use, and of a large hotel, whose foundations are being laid; of streets staked out; of public squares, colleges and church grounds.

In the south-west I see the Wakarusa [river] approach the southern banks of the Kanzas, as if it would lovingly pour its limpid treasures into her broad deep bosom, then start coquettishly away and make a circuit of some six miles to unite with the Kanzas on the south-east. These two rivers almost enclose the city, which covers an area of two miles square, with various "claims" of settlers beyond its limits. On the north bank of the Kanzas a splendid line of forest is half shrouded by the smoke of prairie and wood, which the Delawares, who hold that tract of country in reserve, have fired.

Capitol Hill covers an area of many acres, all graded by the hand of nature, a natural wall of limestone peeping through the sods around its entire base. The Kanzas river, which washes the foot of the bluff on which the business part of the embryo city is to be built, makes a bend at the right point to float timber on either shore to the saw mill. Just as a convenient point for a steamboat landing, the river offers a deep and abrupt channel on the Lawrence shore.

There is no danger of the city or its mills being flooded at high water; the lime rock foundation of the bluff Kansas the banks from all danger of being washed, and the river from any change of channel. The springs are abundant and the water the best I have found since leaving Vermont.

What more can I say of Kanzas? Compared with what I might and would say, if I had time, I am annoyed with the consciousness of having left the advantages and beauties of this swedish body massage wiki Plano, Texas land all unsaid. The pioneer settler must meet toil and wait for his reward, but the former is far less in proportion to the latter than on the older and less genial soil of New England.

I only regret that I must return to the East again in a few weeks. If my home comforts and interest were transferred here-as I hope they may be another season-I could cheerfully give myself to the labor of making a new home among a people whose character and whose destiny are to turn the scales of westering power for the rightfor the true.

One thing I must not forget to mention-no person can have a city lot without binding himself not to deal in intoxicating drinks. A committee of the emigrant party with which I came are now out with an agent of the Emigrant Aid company, to select a location from the desirable points with which he has made himself acquainted.

Another town or city will probably be staked out and frank paul massage Brownsville, Texas upon by Kansas party, as a neighbor and ally of Lawrence.

From this far land I remember my obligation to your excellent paper for many an hour of enjoyment, different ways of having intercourse Topeka. I remember, too, the thousand and one ties which bind my sympathies to the noble men and women of your beautiful State, and would not willingly that they should forget me.

I had commenced arrangements to visit Wisconsin for the purpose of locating a home for myself and family. But the Kansas Emigration Aid Company offered advantages which turned my steps this way. I came expecting different ways of having intercourse Topeka find a second Wisconsin, with a still milder and less changeable climate. It is as I expected; Kansas is Wisconsin, only a "little more so," in her most beautiful features.

There are no swamps to be found in this region. There are fewer small streams, but more springs. Do you remember the splendid scene, the grand rolling prairie dotted with groves of oak, which held our party in almost speechless ecstacy, about six miles this side of Monroe, in Green County? From this hill we have a view of the Kansas [river], and the Delaware Reservation beyond, on one side, and on the other, the Wakarusa [river], which sweeps two-thirds of the area between it and the Kansas, with broad prairies and belts of woodland stretching far beyond.

But I must cut short my description of the country, and will only add a chapter descriptive of pioneer life, for the amusement of your readers. Last evening I lectured by invitation in the first church or meeting-house erected in the settlement. The lecture hour was announced by the ringing up and down of the city dinner bell. My subject was the "Rights of Women," a topic on the tapis and being stoutly contended when I arrived in the settlement.

Now let me give a picture of this Meeting-House, which was finished only yesterday, and which I expect to describe in future years, when the gorgeous pile effected by longer settled countries shall take its place-adding with pride that I had the honor of dedicating it to the equal rights of woman, in the first audience that ever congregated within its walls.

Of course the inside of the building presents to the eye only hay and poles, the hay escaping in single straws rather freely, and tickling the faces that get too near the sloping sides. Bundles of prairie hay were freely strewed upon the floor, ground and my auditors ranged themselves "a la Turk" till no aisle remained between the desk and entrance. There were a number of boxes and trunks, belonging to some of the last party, who have to lodge there till they get up tents or log-houses to live in-and on these the women were seated on one side near me.

My desk was constructed of two tool-chests, piled one on the other, and lighted by two glass lanthorns, suspended, at equal distances, from cross poles, and threw their light in the faces of the auditors. It was a novel scene, and I enjoyed it as I have seldom done a lecture occasion. I intended to write to you ere this, but sundry hindrances arrived in the different ways of having intercourse Topeka before your Kansas, or rather, I should say, the Good Father had not-as some who come here seem to expect-grown houses and finished them up as he does mushrooms.

We had a home to make before health could be insured, and winter provided for. I could not begin to write the story of "life as it is" in Kanzas, amusing as it must be to all and instructive to the many who are preparing to emigrate here. The emigrant from a country old in all the resources for luxuriant homes, makes great blunders in what he brings and what he leaves behind.

I have had an opportunity for observation in the regrets and congratulations of the hundreds who have arrived in Kanzas during my stay here, which will be worth money and insure me against needless expense and privation in the removal of my own household goods and gods the coming Spring.

For lack of such knowledge, many young men, and men without their families have turned back East again, Kansas, who either would not have come this fall, or coming, would have been prepared to dispose of themselves to their satisfaction.

That they were wise in returning, even under circumstances, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, I a good deal more than doubt, provided they are under the necessity or desire to win their bread by useful industry. The man or woman who has not energy and courage enough to make a home where nature has done everything but to build shelters, and where civilization has already opened facilities securing all the staples for the table-is hardly deserving of one. If people leave good homes and tempt the untrodden fields of a new country, they are unwise not to have counted the cost, before pulling up their home associations with the grub-hoe of emigration.

But that was all head knowledge, for it was received second hand, and did not reach the heart like pioneer experience in these blessed days of "Emigrant Aid" Companies, when the misery is sweetened by plenty of company, different ways of having intercourse Topeka.

But you and your readers have undoubtedly heard from some who, having come and taken one forlorn look of suffering, and starvation in prospecttoo terrible to be encountered, have turned back again. The best commentary on such tales, that I could possibly give you, would be to daguereotype Lawrence, and its inhabitants as they pursue their daily avocations.

When I arrived here, like all the new comers, I was taken to a lodging-house and supplied with plenty of prairie hay for a bed, and having come without bedding, in my ignorance of the customs of the country-it was kindly loaned me by a member of the city association. This lodging-house is made of polls [ sic ] or small timbers, and in form and size reminds one of the stray roof of a huge warehouse.

This pole-roof is thatched upon the outside with prairie hay, and is all hay and poles to the view inside. Cotton cloth covers the gable ends which have doors of the same material, nailed to pole frames. Since the weather has grown cooler and the wind whistled uncomfortably through the hay roof, a laying of the dry, tough, Kansas, prairie sod has been put over the whole building, and windows introduced into one end as a substitute for the darkened cloth gables.

The first three days I ate at the public table with my sons; then I commenced house-keeping like my sister emigrants. And now comes the rich humor of my experience in Kansas life-a specimen of pioneer life the country over. The theatre of our operations, or rather our cooking area, was the city "levee," on which these temporary shelters, or lodging "houses" are built. And now fancy breakfast-getting for some twenty families and companies, which have kindled as many fires, some with two or three stones to hold up kettles and pans, and a very few with "stick cranes.

There is a woman, her skirts burned full of holes by the model "fire place," and what remains of them converted into a sort of fringe by the prairie stubble; her breakfast is a simple one, coffee or tea and mush, which is eaten with molasses; but she has a tear in either eye, for the smoke loiters near the earth. Yonder breakfast left to itself a moment-for a crying baby has drawn the Kansas into the tent, as it is called-has tipped over, and the beef soup is flowing from the "camp kettle" into the spattering flame.

But you have not time to linger here, gentlemen, so please follow me into the tents and see the eaters. Many of them it is true, eat sitting on the ground outside; but these are men and boys, who have no "woman cook. The emigrants are buying beef of men who bring it in almost daily from the prairies in the vicinity. It is the best beef I ever found outside a city stall, and has the advantage of being fed in the open air with a wide range and plenty of water.

But we are going to look in upon the eaters in this large tent where between fifty and a hundred are "accommodated. The salt and the pepper are in papers, a tin cup is the tea pot, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, and the little boxes and the ground their seats. There is a group of men standing round a frying pan, each with a piece of bread in hand, dipping in the gravy and eating with slices of bacon, Kansas. There is a company of men round a plate of pancakes which they raised with cream tartar and soda, and spread with molasses as they laid them on the plate.

Kansas is no butter to be had here, or only occasionally as a few pounds are brought from Kanzas [City], Mo. I have not tasted any in three weeks.

Many have been sadly disappointed, not with the country, but in the means necessary to avail themselves of its advantages. Great improvement has been made in the appearance and the comforts of the place in the last two weeks.

Some twenty tenements have been finished, or nearly so, in that time. Two thirds of these are of logs and frames, the clapboards and shingles being split, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, or riven oak-the others of sod, with thatched roofs and lined to some extent with cotton cloth.

The latter are the warmest and most comfortable to be had, till the saw mill shall give boards that can be fitted and keep out the wind, as crooked split ones cannot. By the way this saw mill, whose long, Kansas, though necessarily delayed operation has been the cause of more discomfort and vexation than anything else, has been fixed up and commenced regular work.

As for suffering, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, in the sense used by "folks at home," or starvation, it is out of the question where one has money to procure the necessaries at hand. Stoves have to be brought in from Kansas [City], Missouri, and many have been procured by families after arriving here, which had they understood matters as they easily might have done, and Kansas them with them, would have saved cold fingers and helped on the breakfasts and dinners wonderfully.

I found a stove out of doors, far more convenient than my stick crane, especially in baking and washing. But it is still better in our sod cabin. The climate is the finest, and if sickness comes I shall attribute it to exposure and change of living from a vegetable to a meat diet. After nearly eleven weeks absence I am home again, luxuriating to-day on a dish of "pot luck. But what of Kanzas, which you have not already gathered for your readers? Time is short and your space limited; I will be brief.

It is the most beautiful country my eyes have seen; a country outromancing the descriptions of the novelist and just as God made it-you feel sure in your heart of hearts that He made it, and an instinctive indignation enters the soul with the first glance against licensing human bondage on this glorious race course for the free!

It is as if the Almighty had spread wide the heritage of humanity to indicate its inherent right to freedom. But just while the item is in my thoughts, allow me a word in reference to slavery in the Shawnee missions. I see it asserted and copied, from the Christian Agethat the Shawnee missionaries hold slaves. The government at the same time, and it is said by the influence of the Rev.

Johnson, withdrew its aid from the other missions, they being obnoxious to the government and its pet delegate. It is to different ways of having intercourse Topeka mission station Gov.

I called at the Baptist mission, also at Dr. Their mission schools are broken up by the withdrawal of means, Kansas, and they will be compelled to remove, I was told, from the reserve. I saw no slaves among the Delawares and Shawnees, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, but was told that a few were Kansas be found among the latter. It would different ways of having intercourse Topeka strange if some of the disciples of Mr.

Johnson had not followed his example, living as they do on the Missouri border. It would be simply ridiculous to assert that the emigrants to Kanzas were in no danger of "freezing and starving" when I left them-but that some poor, and unmated fellows, Kansas less courage than their "strong-minded" sisters, and less power of self-protection than the prairie mouse, having spent a single night in the settlement, returned to "print it in the papers.

I expect to return to Kanzas early in the coming spring, and as Mr. Only think of it,-your railroad directors set a young girl to protect the women who stop at your station, against their "natural protectors" - fathers, husbands, brothers!

If we have to wait at S[pringfield]. My attention has been called to a letter from B. The source of this letter, its antecedents and indorsement, conspire to make its statements worthy of different ways of having intercourse Topeka notice. Stringfellow is a man of independent nerve, and instead of being rated as "Mr. A similar demonstration, originating without doubt in the same patriotic brain, was made about the same time in Westport, the last town in Missouri through which the emigrants pass to Lawrence and vicinity.

But to the letter in question:. First, in reply to the query "Will Kansas be a Slave-holding State? Stringfellow says, "I answer, without hesitation it will? Yet I never despaired! I still declared that, though sent out they could not remain; they could not live in the praires!

I can now refer you to the result of the late election for Delegate, as evidence conclusive of the correctness of my opinion. The late elections involving "conclusive evidence" that Kansas will be a Slave State, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, is worthy a brief review. Now, what are the facts? In the first place, there has been no such wholesale returning of those who went out prepared or expecting to remain.

Of those who returned before the election, only two to my knowledge, had wives with them, and they were just married. One of these, a young merchant, took Kansas in his bridal tour. Pioneer life was not presided over by "honey-moons. It was not the difficulty of making farms in Kansas which sent back so many single men and men without their families. It was not that the soil and climate of Kansas disappointed their expectations; for among those who returned, a large proportion had proved the value and power of their own labor, and knew well that intelligence, economy and industry, such as independence and responsibility force upon the Nothern freeman, can live and get rich on a harder, colder, and less genial soil.

They knew, too, that slave-labor, ignorant and wasteful, and with no higher motive than fear of the lash or barracoon, must Kansas the most fertile and grateful soil in order to sustain itself and enrich the master. They saw that Kansas was equal to the support of slave holders by slave-labor, and they had no ground and to fear that "the poor man," who is his own master, would fail of his reward as a tiller of the soil. Stringfellow, touching the facts or fallacies which have determined the return or stay of the emigrants to Kansas.

The preemption law requires actual residence on the "claim," or land taken up. Men might "take up claims," and leave them to go home for their families, and in their absence others take possession. Under the United States law, they had no surety of ultimate purchase, but an actual residence until the land should have been surveyed, and brought into market.

Thus, men who had left their families at the East, not expecting to bring them out till spring, and intending to return for them after locating claims, in many instances returned without doing so. Probably not one of all persons who went to Kansas from the East, has not relatives or friends, who have made farms in the prairies of Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, or Iowa, and with whom they have kept up an intelligent correspondence. From such sources they were well informed as to the modus operandi of breaking up by "doubling teams" and joining hands, where an individual and his single team are insufficient.

Kansas other sections of the prairie country, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, there Kansas settlers who keep the requisite team-power, and break up the soil at so much an acre-a sum within the different ways of having intercourse Topeka of the free laborer to pay.

But why did not the single men, who had no families East, remain in Kansas! I reply, it was not because they could not make farms in the prairie; not one of them gave this as the reason of their return to the States.

Stringfellow to be a Christian slaveholder, and not an infidel, I refer him, for the true Kansas and force of this reasoning, to the "Eden" of Genesis. Now Eden, from the Bible account, was better prepared for an individual to "live in," than even a Kansas prairie, for the Lord "God had," not only used the breaking-up plow, "but planted a garden eastward in Eden.

And there he put the man who he had formed, and out of the ground the Lord God" not "one or more slaves" "made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food.

It was for want of helps to make a home, which a preemptor of lands in Kansas must have, that so many men returned "before election. Of those who returned after election, I know scarce one who had not made arrangements to return with their "helps. One word in reference to the voters for Delegate to Congress. And unless the occupancy of the Kansas prairies, as pasture-ground for their cattle in the years past, makes them residents of Kansas, or "a board having their name nailed to a Kansas tree," of which Gov.

Stringfellow will fail to show even a lean majority of settlers in favor of Slavery for Kansas. On the day of the election, Kansas, and the preceding day, I was on an eminence, in Lawrence, that overlooked miles of the great public road which keeps on the south bank of the Kansas [river] West, and that road was literally filled with wagons and horses bearing Missourians to Kansas ballot-boxes.

These voters came armed and equipped, as the law ALLOWS with whisky by the barrel to aid them in the exercise of "that noblest privilege of the freeman, the elective franchise! As for the rest of Mr. I like to write out his name in full; it so reminds me of the old Methodist stanza-"Judas by a cord out ran his Lord, and got "to heaven first. Time and pressure of business admonish me to say as much as can be said in a brief communication for the instruction, rather than amusement, of your readers.

We have had a long and more tedious journey than we could anticipate so late in the season. Chouteau and Hopkins clerks, where we were entertained in the most kindly manner and fared well till we left Kansas city for an overland route to this place. Our party numbered one hundred and forty, exclusive of children.

Many sterling men and women, and some miserable men -a few drunk nearly all the time. There was some picking of pockets-and it ought to be understood by those who emigrate, that as emigrants are expected to take with them something to sustain themselves and buy for future needs, gentleman pickpockets are very likely to calculate the chances for gain, and join the parties which come out.

A pair of gamblers came on board our boat at Boonville, Mo. Louis thus far on another boat loaded with emigrants, and by tricks with a strap and another with cards, succeeded in making a raise of ninety dollars among our young men, not our Vermont or New Hampshire boys, and how much they got of an different ways of having intercourse Topeka one or two, whom they enticed by strong drink to risk the "bet," we could not ascertain.

I note these facts to warn others who may come after us. None gained either in money or reputation who accepted the challenge. We spent the first night at the Bardwell House, Rutland, sleeping from three to five in a bed. Little sleep did I get, and the next time I pay for lodging in that shape, at a "First Class Hotel," with a miserable breakfast to match the same, it will be in Kansas, where lodgings are scarce.

Breakfasts, however, one can get, even here, that are hot and well cooked. But Rutland was matched in its table fare at Detroit and Chicago. But to Kansas-what of the election? The number is estimated by Missourians at ten thousand. One of these gentlemen frankly confessed to a Massachusetts emigrant, that they tapped the whiskey barrels and spilt the liquor to keep "popular sovereignty" from becoming dangerous to its own advocates. Several men felt obliged to fly from this place, their lives being threatened by the rowdy "sovereigns.

In this place seven hundred Missourians assembled and voted, threatened the judges of the election, and during the forenoon the "free State" residents did not attempt to vote. Later in the day, Kansas, when the Missourians had scattered their forces, some two hundred and fifty voted, about two-thirds the actual number of free State men. The season is late here as well as East.

I am different ways of having intercourse Topeka without a fire, it being rather uncomfortable with one, different ways of having intercourse Topeka.

We found scant team force to take us and the hundred from Pennsylvania and other States into the territory. But one man is expected into the territory this week with one thousand milch cows, while some three thousand head of cattle are known to be on the way.

Flour is nine dollars in Kansas City-eleven dollars here. Corn meal one dollar eighty here-one dollar there. Freights are up to one dollar twenty-five cents per hundred from St. Louis to Kansas city, one dollar to one dollar twenty-five cents from Kansas city here by land.

The Kansas river is rising, and ten days hence the steamer is expected up from St. Louis to navigate its waters. Fares and freight will be down from St.

Louis here soon as the rains raise the rivers. Freight was down to seventy-five cents per hundred from St. Louis to Kansas only ten days before we arrived there; but the river fell again in consequence of the cold weather, but was getting higher when we disembarked. As we have but one mail a week, private conveyance to a daily Post Office, in Kansas [City], Missouri, gives us almost daily opportunity to send out letters communications are liable to get old in their journey East.

In my first letter I minuted a few incidents of our journey: a few more are worth jotting perhaps. We found the team powers at Kansas [City], Mo. Different ways of having intercourse Topeka and the principle reason was that the agent at Kansas did not receive timely notice of our numbers and probable time of arrival.

Our family party with Mr. Such another whipping and hallooing I never rode after. Once the creatures came near upsetting us, taking a sudden turn at right angles with one of the steep pitches which occur on either side the ravines.

The roads are smooth and fine. There has as yet been no rain in the territory, and no muddy roads. We are having a slight sprinkling now which may become rain. On our way up we met large numbers of the Kaw Indians, the lowest and most degraded tribe in the territory, who are beggars and thieves, but otherwise harmless. It seemed a kind of migratory season with them, and will long be remembered by our party in connexion with an incident showing that their faith is unchanged since the time when Pope wrote of the "poor Indian.

Lawrence had grown, or rather buildings have multiplied since I left in December; But still owing to the inefficiency of the saw mill in operation, only one as yet being on the ground-but a few of the houses are finished to the demands for comfort in "a cold snap ," while two-thirds of the frames erected are but partially covered or enclosed.

It will be two months at least before the saw mill now on the way here can be put in operation. The large hotel, whose cellar was dug and underpinning commenced when I left, is now being prepared for the superstructure.

Emigrants in health can easily find accommodations while they look about and make them on claims or in the city for themselves. Such accommodations however until lumber is to be had more plentifully must be temporary. A great many of our party, single men, came to Lawrence, spent a night and returned East again. They were disappointed in not finding work ready for them, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, and it would seem did not come to different ways of having intercourse Topeka farms unless they could find them in the cityor very near it.

I suspect they were afraid of the Missourians, as it was just then different ways of having intercourse Topeka governor was threatened. I go to the head waters of the Osage-to Ossawattamie [ sic ]-to-day. Nichols went from Kansas City by stage, directly there, as he could by so doing take a claim adjoining. We met at Kansas [City] a gentleman [Orville C, different ways of having intercourse Topeka.

Brown] from Western New York. The first to locate the town, and gathered from him additional information concerning that section of the territory. It Ossawatamie [ sic ] lies directly south from Lawrence, about forty miles, between the Pottawatomie and the Magdesine [Marais des Cygnes], two streams which unite and form the Osage.

A gentleman here who visited that section two weeks ago, tells me there were fifteen miles well timbered on each side of the stream where no claims had been taken. I will write you further when I have been there. I met a gentleman here from Topeka twenty miles West on the Kansas river with whom I had previously formed a pleasant acquaintance. Wood and water are more abundant also in that vicinity. Several of our party went up with him and took claims about five miles from Topeka. They tell me the land is more desirable than any claims to be had in the vicinity of this place and the prairies most beautiful.

Several of my old friends have removed there, and others of our party last fall are going there, different ways of having intercourse Topeka.

The emigrants have been generally healthy; few deaths or severe cases of illness in proportion to their numbers. So much for the Missouri effort to legislate for Kansas. All praise is due to Gov. He stated in public to Mr. Johnson one of the Council elected, and the slaveholding missionary at whose house the Governor stays, that three Missourians might kill him, but the whole state of Missouri should not force him to act contrary to his convictions of right.

He also told them that if different ways of having intercourse Topeka attempted his life, some of them would die with him.

Part Two, the Clarina I. GAMBONE is a member of the manuscript and archives staff of the Kansas Historical Society. He wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Vivian Bryan, Vermont State Library at Montpelier, T. Seymour Bassett, University of Vermont at Burlington, and Eva J. Leech, Brooks Memorial Library at Brattleboro, Vt.

The literature on the New England Emigrant Aid Company is voluminous. For additional information, see Johnson, "The Genesis of the New England Emigrant Aid Society," New England Quarterly NEQCambridge, Mass. Moody, "The First Year of the Emigrant Aid Company," NEQv. Carruth, "The New England Emigrant Aid Company as an Investment Society," Kansas Historical Collections KHCv.

Hickman, "Speculative Activities of the Emigrant Aid Company," KHQv. Pomeroy and the New England Emigrant Aid Company," ibid. Harlow, "The Rise and Fall of the Kansas Aid Movement," American Historical Review AHRNew York, v. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gabe, ed. She also traveled throughout New England and lectured on the disabilities of women.

She developed a very close and personal relationship with Susan B. For a recent study that briefly sketches Mrs. Although some chronological and factual conflicts exist in the available biographical sketches of Mrs. Nichols, the events and dates given here are those which seem to be most logical. Although not always accurate, the best source of information on Kansas. Howard Nichols," in HWSv. Margaret Gould Owens, Cavendish, Vt. Nichols Papers," manuscript division, Kansas Historical Society-hereafter cited "Nichols Papers" and Kansas ; Clarina I.

Nichols to Susan B. Patricia Rabinovitz, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, Ann Arbor, Mich. Seymour Bassett, Burlington, Vt. Nichols was born in Stowe, Vt, different ways of having intercourse Topeka. In a letter to Susan B. Upon learning of Mrs. For additional information on Mrs. Bloomer, see NAWv.

Jordan, "The Bloomers in Iowa," Palimpsetv. Scattered issues are found in the newspaper files of the Vermont State Library, American Antiquarian Society, New-York Historical Society, Library of Congress, and Brooks Memorial Library, Different ways of having intercourse Topeka, Vt. A few issues are in the private collection of F. A search of several Vermont newspapers-Montpelier Vermont PatriotMontpelier Vermont Watchmanand Windsor Vermont Journal -for extracts of Mrs.

Nichols stated that her editorials were "addressed to the voters [men] of the State" and denounced "the injustice and miserable economy of the property disabilities of married women. In her speech before the Vermont legislature, Mrs. Unfortunately there is not an extant copy of her speech. The editor of the Vermont Christian Messenger attended Mrs. She claimed for woman the right to represent her property and natural interests in her child, in overseeing its educational interests.

Nichols wrote: "The effort brought me no reproach, no ridicule from any quarter, but instead, cordial recognition and delicate sympathy from unexpected quarters, and even from those who had heard but the report of persons present.

For a favorable editorial concerning Mrs. Bloomer Papers," Free Public Library, Council Bluffs, Iowa; Susan B. Anthony to Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Rochester, N. Bowe to Nichols, Mohawk, N. For additional information on the Vermont temperance movement, see Nichols to Susan B.

Rabinovitz; Nichols to Sherman M. For a study of the early temperance crusade in Vermont, see David M. For the complete text of Mrs. However, she was just a passive observer and did not take an active part in the debates at that time. Anthony Papers," Radcliffe College Library. Alma Lutz, Susan B. Unfortunately very little of Mrs. Several letters are found in the "Susan B, Kansas. Anthony Papers" at Radcliffe College and several are in the private collection of Mrs.

In discussing the friendship of Mrs. Nichols and Miss Anthony, Ida Hosted Harper wrote: "Of all the pioneer workers with whom Miss Anthony had been associated in the early days so full of scorn, Kansas and abuse, Mrs. Nichols was among the nearest and dearest, a forceful speaker and writer, a tender, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, loving woman.

The original letter has not been located. A careful examination of the "Susan B. Anthony Papers" at the Library of Congress, Kansas, Radcliffe College Library, Henry E. Huntington Library, Smith College Library, New York Public Library, Vassar College Library, University of Rochester Library, Seneca Falls Historical Society, and Susan B.

Anthony Memorial, and the "Ida Hosted Papers" at the Library of Congress and Henry E, different ways of having intercourse Topeka. Huntington Library proved unsuccessful.

For the text of Mrs. For additional biographical information, see NAWKansas, v. For the proceedings of the Rochester convention, see ibid. For a biographical sketch of Lydia F. Fowler, see NAWv. At the request of Miss Anthony, Mrs.

In announcing the suspension of the DemocratAmelia J. Bloomer wrote that the decision rested on the ill health of Mrs. Nichols had given thought to leaving Vermont and moving to Wisconsin where she Kansas spent the previous autumn. Ostrander to Nichols, Aztalan [Wis. Nichols to Sherman M. No truer friend of freedom can be found than she, and if the wives of all the men who settle in Kansas are like her in this particular, slavery will never gain a foothold on that soil.

Wattles to George W. Rabinovitz; Kanzas NewsEmporia, K. Wattles, secretary of the Moneka association, wrote: "We talked over the different ways of petitioning. Others objected to it for that reason. We finally concluded not to decide on any form, until we heard from you again. We shall pass a resolution requesting you to present our petitions and we desire to have them in such a form as will be acceptable to you. In his editorial, George W. Brown asserted: "It is time for.

If they dare not meet this question as boldly as they do that of the suffrage of foreigners, they should show sufficient backbone to submit a separate clause to the vote of the people, entirely disconnected from the question of Negro suffrage, and let the popular vote determine whether the future State shall disgrace itself by classing woman in the political scale with Negroes, lunatics, and idiots.

Nichols, she was given a permanent seat which she "occupied till the adjournment of the Convention, laboring to develop an active and corresponding interest in outsiders as well as members, until my petitions had been acted upon and different ways of having intercourse Topeka provisions finally passed; purposely late in the session. Kansas Constitutional Conventionp. Nichols had the support of several delegates, including John Ritchie, a Republican from Shawnee county, who argued: "The right of petition, I hope, will ever be held sacred.

In this age of intelligence-in the noon of the nineteenth century, I hope we will not take the position that we will not hear a woman in her own cause. Houston, a Republican from Douglas county, asserted that the time was approaching when "it will be impossible for any power in this land to curtail one single human right. Unfortunately the text of Mrs. Following her address, Mrs.

Reeves and John B. Kansas Constitutional Conventiondifferent ways of having intercourse Topeka, pp. Kingman, "A Personal Memory," The Club MemberTopeka, v. Nichols in the Constitutional convention at Wyandotte, they owe the modicum of justice secured by that document. With her knitting in hand, she sat there alone through all the sessions, the only woman present, watching every step of the proceedings, and laboring with members to so frame the constitution as to make all citizens equal before the law.

Though she did not accomplish what she desired, yet by her conversations with the young men of the State, she may be said to have made the idea of woman suffrage seem practicable to those who formed the constitution and statute laws of that State. According to Joseph P. Nichols than all other feminists: "Mrs.

Nichols labored with the zeal and heroism born of a great noble heart, whose every pulsation is for humanity in the elevation of women to her proper political as well as social position. For biographical sketches of Frances B. Elizabeth Jones, Kansas, see NAWv. Charles Robinson had recommended Mrs. In his letter he stated: "Mrs. If you can find a suitable place for her either with our Kansas Regiments or elsewhere, it will be gratifying to her numerous friends.

After learning of Mrs. Nichols started, with an abundant devotion of heart, to the noble cause in which she has in twelve months brought the affairs of the Home, that were then in a chaotic state, Kansas, to a most complete system of social and educational discipline, with orderly, cleanly regulations, and physical and moral condition of the inmates greatly improved.

There are now over seventy orphan children, and several aged persons receiving the benefits of that Institution which is now supported alone by voluntary charities.

Anthony: Rebel, Crusader, Humanitarianpp. For biographical information on Olympia Brown, Kansas, see NAWpp. In an editorial on Mrs. The Secretary of [the] State Society [Franklin G. Adams] having been a co-worker with Mrs.

Nichols knows to what extent that State is indebted to her. Nichols had written Charles Robinson to endorse her reminiscences. He stated in his letter to Miss Anthony which he copied in his letter to Mrs. Nichols to Anthony, Pomo, Calif. Many did well in this work, but she excelled them all. Another founder of the State has passed away, another star has set. But for her there is no occasion to mourn, except for the loss of the living. For such as Mrs.

Nichols never worked for personal reward, she was honored twice by the women of Kansas. The published memorial stated: "Will it not be a privilege for Kansas women to acknowledge this unquestionable debt of gratitude to Mrs.

Nichols for her early services, and do it while she is living. Eight years after her death, Mrs. Stone, a Topeka artist, and exhibited in the Kansas building at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The papers of Clarina I. Nichols have remained relatively scarce and widely scattered. Aside from the papers in the private collections of Mrs, different ways of having intercourse Topeka.

Margaret Gould Owens, and T. Seymour Bassett, additional manuscripts are located at the Kansas Historical Society, Radcliffe College Library, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, Houghton Library at Harvard University, and the Free Public Library at Council Bluffs, Iowa.

The author has attempted to bring together Mrs. Although the collection is the result of several years of searching, no claim of completeness is made, different ways of having intercourse Topeka. It Kansas hoped that perhaps this article will succeed in uncovering additional papers. Documentation has been restricted to the identification of persons and to an explanation of situations and events without which the document would not be completely intelligible.

To identify everything is, of course, impossible. Each item has been preceded by a heading indicating the name of the addressee if known, or the type of composition, i. The author wishes to thank Mrs, different ways of having intercourse Topeka. Margaret Gould Owens, T.

Seymour Bassett, and the Radcliffe College Library for permission to publish the Nichols papers in their possession. He also wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the staffs of the Library of Congress, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, New York Public Library, New York Historical Society, University of Rochester Library, Rochester Public Library, Vassar College Library, Smith College Library, Houghton Library, Boston Kansas Library, Kansas, Massachusetts Historical Society, American Antiquarian Society, Seneca Falls Historical Society, Keene N.

Public Library, Ohio Historical Society, Illinois State Historical Library, Kansas, Kentucky Historical Society, State Historical Society of Iowa, Council Bluffs Free Public Library, State Historical Society of Missouri, Milwaukee Public Library, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Henry E.

Huntington Library, California State Library, Bancroft Library, Vermont State Library, Brooks Memorial Library, and Kansas State Library. In reference to Mrs. Nichols and her two older sons, Aurelius Ormando and Chapin Howard Carpenter, joined the fourth party of the New England Emigrant Aid Company.

Her husband, daughter, Kansas, and youngest son remained in Brattleboro. During the journey up the Missouri river, Mrs. In announcing her departure for Kansas, the Worcester Mass. Daily Transcript asserted that Mrs. Nichols emigrated "with the intention of taking up her abode in the new territory. She will keep out the slave holders, if any one can. Nichols refers here to the Chicago, Alton and St. He was a trustee of the aid company and a vice-president during the whole active period of the corporation.

Branscomb, a lawyer from Holyoke, Mass. Despite the evidence, it seems likely that Branscomb was less dishonest than incompetent. He later served in the Kansas territorial legislature and the Missouri state legislature. During the Grant administration he was appointed consul to Manchester, England. James Gilpatrick, a Baptist clergyman from Topsham, Maine, was sent to Kansas as a missionary of the American Baptist Home Missionary Society.

Nichols wrote about several incidents that occurred immediately following her arrival in Kansas. Lawrence, the treasurer of the aid company. For additional information on the settlement of Lawrence, see Johnson, The Battle Cry of Freedompp. For biographical information on Amos A.

Lawrence, see William Lawrence, Life of Amos A. Nichols refers here to Mount Oread. Cordley, A History of Lawrence, Kansas, From the First Settlement to the Close of the Rebellionp. Topeka was the second town to be founded largely through the efforts of the aid company. Although the company took a less active interest in the development of Topeka than it did in Lawrence, its agents continued to direct settlers to the new townsite.

For additional information on the settlement of Topeka, see F. Giles, Thirty Years in TopekaTopeka, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, George W. Booth, a fanatical abolitionist antislavery agitator, was editor of the Democratprobably the most influential abolitionist journal in Wisconsin. The Lily reprinted Mrs. A thorough search of extant Kansas territorial newspapers, as well as newspaper clippings, manuscript collections, and published letters in Eastern journals, proved unsuccessful in locating information on Mrs.

For additional information of the "rescue case," see Joseph Schafer, "Stormy Days in Court-The Booth Case," Wisconsin Magazine of Historyv. As a history of the past, Kansas, the letter is worthy of being placed on file. For an excellent account on the housing situation in Lawrence, see James C. In a letter to the Brattleboro Weekly EagleAurelius O.

Carpenter wrote: "what would you think Messrs. Editors, to see your former cotemporary, Mrs. Shortly after writing this letter, Mrs. Nichols returned to Vermont. Nichols arrived in Brattleboro in early January and immediately began preparations for her return to the territory in the spring. During her stay in Vermont she gave several lectures on Kansas, different ways of having intercourse Topeka.

An examination of the extant issues of the Christian Age on file at the American Baptist Historical Society failed to locate the article on the Shawnee mission in Kansas.

The Methodist church established two missions for the Shawnee Indians in Kansas. Thomas Johnson, near present-day Turner in Wyandotte county. Lutz, "The Methodist Missions Among the Indian Tribes in Kansas," KHCv. Ross, "The Old Shawnee Mission," ibid. It was to this mission that Jotham Meeker brought his printing press to print books in the Indian language. For additional information on the Baptist mission, see Barry, The Beginning of the West, passim ; Esther Clark Hill, "Some Background of Early Baptist Missions in Kansas," KHQv.

Andreas and William G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas Chicago, A. For additional information on the Friends mission, see Barry, The Beginning of the West, passim; H. Pearl Dixon, Sixty Years Among the Indians: A Short Life Sketch of Thomas H. Stanley, Quaker Missionaries to the Indians Galena, Sadie S. Elliott, Development of Friends the American Frontier Richmond, Ind.

For additional biographical information, see Speer, "Patriotism and Education in the Methodist Church," pp. Although a slaveholder and a sympathizer with the Proslavery party in Kansas, Johnson was a staunch Unionist during the Civil War. For additional biographical information on Johnson, see "Thomas Johnson Papers," manuscript division, KSHS; "Letters of Rev.

Thomas Johnson, KHCv. Cory, "Slavery in Kansas," ibid. Bullard, "Horticulture in Kansas," ibid. Connelley, A Standard History of Kansas and Kansansv.

Since Nebraska territory was never officially organized, Kansas, he was not received as a delegate in Washington.

For additional information, see Barry, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, The Beginning of the Westpp. Martin, "The Boundary Line of Kansas," KHCv. Reeder," KHCv. After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, he became secretary of the Platte County Self-defensive Association in Weston, Mo. He labored diligently in the promotion of Atchison and became active in railroad development.

For additional biographical information, see Lester B. Stringfellow: The Fight for Slavery on the Missouri Border," Missouri Historical ReviewColumbia, v. Coffin, "Settlement of Friends in Kansas, KHCv. Stringfellow, Negro-Slavery, No Evil, or the North and the South St. Brooks and John McQueen of South Carolina, Thomas L. It has already been copied into most of the leading Southern Democratic journals, and will doubtless be trumpeted by the rest. And, in spite of its mountain of sophistry and falsehood with regard to the Whitfield sham election, it yet contains much that Northern eye will rest on with the deepest interest.

Nichols refers here to David Rice Atchison, U. The meeting adopted a series of resolutions, one of which was: "That this association will, whenever called upon by any of the citizens of Kansas Territory, hold itself in readiness together to assist and remove any and all emigrants who go there under different ways of having intercourse Topeka auspices of the Northern Emigrant Aid Societies. The merchants and businessmen of Weston were too shrewd not to take advantage of the emigrant trade, regardless of the political philosophy of the settlers.

For additional information, see ibid. Stringfellow: The Fight for Slavery on the Missouri Border," p. Different ways of having intercourse Topeka election had different ways of having intercourse Topeka political significance since the delegate would serve only until the following March, when a new congress would reconvene.

Nevertheless, hundreds of Missourians crossed over the border to cast fraudulent ballots. The illegal voting was an early indication of the extremes to be taken by the Proslavery men of Missouri. Such action aroused the Free-State partisans both in Kansas and throughout the North to intensify their efforts for freedom in Kansas. For information on the delegate election, see Hickman, "The Reeder Administration Inaugurated," pp. There is no extant evidence indicating that members of the Northern emigration companies had made contractual agreements different ways of having intercourse Topeka emigrate for the purpose of voting.

Preemptors in Kansas were required to file a declaratory statement within three months after the survey of the land had been completed and to pay for the land before it was offered at public sale. Twenty-two additional votes were scattered among other men. Although different ways of having intercourse Topeka is little doubt that a large number of Missourians voted for Whitfield, it is almost impossible to ascertain the total number of fraudulent votes.

As Kansas meeting was composed of few Kansas residents, Reeder stated: "Your own body, whom I am now addressing, contains two undoubted residents of Missouri, one of whom is your chairman, who resides with his family in the town of Liberty, Mo. Douglas City was the polling place in the second district in Douglas county for the November delegate election. Fraudulent voting also occurred in most of the other districts. For additional information, see Hickman, "The Reeder Administration Inaugurated," pp.

New Hampshire American Newsdifferent ways of having intercourse Topeka, Keene, N. Samuel Woodward, editor of the American Newswas a Free-Soil Democrat and a leader in the New Hampshire temperance movement. Through the columns of his journal, he boldly and fearlessly advocated the doctrines of the Free Soil party, and labored unceasingly for the promotion of temperance legislation.

No biographical information has been found on Farwell. On that day, hundreds of Missourians, or so-called "Border Ruffians," swarmed across the border and took possession of the polls, Kansas. Their votes gave the Proslavery forces a resounding victory. The Free-State men promptly dubbed the newly elected legislature "bogus" and referred to its enactments by the same derisive term.

Actually there were enough bona fide Proslavery residents in the territory at this time that such intervention would not have been necessary.

For biographical information, see DABv. Not knowing the entire scope of the frauds, he granted election certificates to about two thirds of the candidates, and set aside the elections in several districts. All but one were eventually carried by the Free-State forces. Spring, Kansas: The Prelude to the War for the Union Boston, Houghton, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, Mifflin and Co.

Pomeroy, a native of Northampton, Mass. Strobel Olson, "A Political Biography of Senator Samuel C. William Hutchinson had been editor of the Green Mountain Herald in West Randolph, Vt. After his arrival in the territory he continued his involvement in journalism by writing letters back to several Eastern journals. At first he was a correspondent for the Montpelier Vermont Watchman and Boston Journal.

Thereafter he was hired as a special correspondent for the New York Times and wrote under the signature "Randolph" the name of his native town for seven years. He was also an occasional correspondent for the Chicago Daily TribuneDaily Missouri DemocratKansas, St. Louis, and the Washington Republic. For additional biographical information, see William Hutchinson, "Sketches of Kansas Pioneer Experiences," KHCv.

Hinton, "Pens That Made Kansas Free," ibid. Weisberger, "The Newspaper Reporter and the Kansas Imbroglio," MVHRv. For a scholarly history of the Kansa Indians, see William E. Work proceeded slowly because of lack of funds. Eldridge, Recollections of Early Days in Kansas Publications of the Kansas Historical Society, v.

Osawatamie, located in present day Miami county, was founded by Orville C. He named the settlement different ways of having intercourse Topeka from "Osage" and "Pottawatomie.

Brown, William Ward, and S. Pomeroy, each holding a one-third interest. The town was somewhat removed from the main emigrant routes and was located in an area that was settled heavily by Proslavery men from Missouri. The site was selected by James Blood, agent for Amos A. Lawrence, acting in behalf of the aid company. For additional information, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, see Johnson, The Battle Cry for Freedompp.

Lines to the New Haven Conn. Daily Palladium ," KHQKansas, v. Nichols was in error with her comments on the election returns. The Papers of Clarina I. Edited by JOSEPH G. To the Editor of the N. Yours for Kansas, Humanity and. Yours in haste, till I write again.

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If the nonspecialist finds their use confusing, we may restate our conclusions in another way. Nichols declined because of other commitments in Vermont. But you and your readers have undoubtedly heard from some who, having come and taken one forlorn look of suffering, and starvation in prospect , too terrible to be encountered, have turned back again. For additional information on the settlement of Topeka, see F. I note these facts to warn others who may come after us. Cold Case Files Most Infamous Cases - Episode 2 - Killer In The County

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Different ways of having intercourse Topeka, Kansas But just while the item Kansas in my thoughts, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, allow me a word in reference to slavery in the Shawnee missions. Nichols had given thought to leaving Vermont and moving to Wisconsin where she had spent the previous autumn. The source of this letter, its antecedents and indorsement, conspire to make its statements worthy of particular notice. Because of their obviously greater bearing on human problems, river drain. It requires more time for the changes of baggage. Stringfellow: The Fight for Slavery on the Missouri Border," Missouri Historical ReviewColumbia, v. I have had an opportunity for observation in the regrets and congratulations of the hundreds who have arrived in Kanzas during my stay here, which will be worth money and insure me against needless expense and privation in the removal of my own household goods and gods the coming Spring.
Different ways of having intercourse Topeka, Kansas 819
FREE MAN GETS HAPPY ENDING IN BATON ROUGE MASSAGE JURUPA VALLEY, CALIFORNIA Here the neck below the rim was apparently left plain. When I arrived here, like all the new comers, I was taken to a lodging-house and supplied with plenty of prairie hay for a bed, and having come without bedding, in my ignorance of the customs of the country-it was kindly loaned me by a member of the city association. Combining a noble radicalism of thought with a feminine conservatism of spirit, she was admirably qualified to do justice to the delicate theme that she treated. Stringfellow, different ways of having intercourse Topeka, touching the facts or fallacies which have determined the different ways of having intercourse Topeka or stay of the emigrants to Kansas. Now, what are the facts? Nichols knows to what extent that State is indebted to her.

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